Saturday Night Live
Un article de Vev.
- This article is about the long-running American variety show. For other uses, see SNL (disambiguation)
Modèle:For Modèle:Infobox television Saturday Night Live (SNL) is a weekly late-night 90-minute American comedy-variety show based in New York City that has been broadcast by NBC on Saturday nights since October 11, 1975. In Canada it is simulcast on the Global Television Network. It is broadcast live in the Eastern, Central, and Atlantic time zones, with a two or three hour delay from stations in the Mountain and Pacific Time Zones. It is one of the longest-running network entertainment programs in American television history. Each week, the show's cast is joined by a guest host and musical act.
Originally, the show was called NBC's Saturday Night until NBC retitled its show in 1976 (the Saturday Night Live title having been previously attached to a short-lived variety show hosted by Howard Cosell and airing on rival network ABC). The first show with the new title was broadcast on March 26, 1977.
The show — broadcast from Studio 8H at the GE Building (called the RCA Building until 198Image:Cool.gif in New York's Rockefeller Center — has been the launching place for many major American comedy stars of the last thirty years. It was created by Canadian Lorne Michaels who, excluding a hiatus from Season 6 through Season 10, has produced and written for the show and remains its executive producer (Jean Doumanian produced almost all of Season 6, and Dick Ebersol produced the last episode of Season 6, and all of Seasons 7–10).
- By era: 1975–1980, 1980–1985, 1985–1990, 1990–1995, 1995–2000, 2000–2005, 2005–Present
- By season: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33
- Weekend Update
- See also: Saturday Night Live cast
- Fred Armisen (2002-present)
- Will Forte (2002-present)
- Bill Hader (2005-present)
- Darrell Hammond (1995-present)
- Seth Meyers (2001-present)
- Amy Poehler (2001-present)
- Maya Rudolph (2000-present)
- Andy Samberg (2005-present)
- Jason Sudeikis (2005-present)
- Kenan Thompson (2003-present)
- Kristen Wiig (2005-present)
Since the show's inception, SNL has aired from Studio 8H, located on floors 8 and 9 of GE Building (30 Rockefeller Plaza, or "30 Rock"). Due to the studio originally being a radio soundstage for Arturo Toscanini and his NBC Symphony Orchestra, the layout of the studio floor and the audience positioning causes some audience members to have an obstructed view of many of the sketches. According to NBC, the 8H studio has an almost perfect sound acoustic. The offices of SNL writers, producers, and other staff can be found on the 17th floor of "30 Rock".
During the summer 2005 shooting hiatus, crews began renovations on Studio 8H. With its thirty-first season premiere in October 2005, the show began broadcasting in High Definition, appearing letterboxed on conventional screens.
Other productions have occasionally used the studio. Three of the first four shows of the 1976-77 season were shot at the former NBC Studios in Brooklyn, due to NBC News using Studio 8H for Presidential election coverage. The first season finale of The Apprentice and the 5th Anniversary special of Late Night with Conan O'Brien have used the studio for one night. Likewise, Later with Bob Costas, Love, Sidney, the 50th anniversary of Television episode of Today in 1990, "House Party with Steve Doocy" and the 5th Anniversary special of Late Night with David Letterman were broadcast from Studio 8H. Last Call with Carson Daly used the studio until 2005, when the show moved to Studio 9 at the NBC Studios in Burbank, California.
The following is a summary of the process used to produce the show. It is based in part on an August 2000 Writer's Digest article and an April 28, 2004 Fresh Air interview with writer and performer Tina Fey:
- The day begins with a topical meeting, identifying the biggest story for the show's opening.
- This is followed by a free-form pitch meeting with Lorne Michaels and the show's host for the week. the official name is "The Host Meeting" but all the writers and cast members call it "The Pitch Meeting"
- Throughout the week the host has a lot of influence on which sketches get aired.
- Following the meeting, writers begin to draft the two scripts each must produce.
- The host does the photo shoot for the SNL bumpers.
- Starting in the afternoon, anywhere from 30 to 45 scripts are written, most of which will not be broadcast.
- Once a writer's scripts are complete, he or she will often help other writers on their scripts.
- All scripts get a read-through.
- After the read-through, the head writer(s) and the producers meet with the host to decide which sketches to work on for the rest of the week, with Lorne Michaels and the host having the final say.
- The surviving sketches are reviewed, word-by-word, by the writing staff as a whole or in two groups in the case of co-head writers.
- Some sketches which survived the cut because of their premise, but are in need of work, are rewritten completely. Others are changed in smaller ways.
- The Weekend Update crew starts coming together, starting with the news items written by writers dedicated all week to the segment.
- The crew comes in for rehearsal, and the music act is rehearsed as well as some of the larger, more important sketches.
- The musical guest does a photo shoot for the SNL bumpers.
- The host and musical guest and usually some cast members shoot two to four promos to play for NBC.
- The show is blocked.
- The writer of each sketch acts as producer, working with the show's set designers and costumers.
- With the show still far from finalized, the day begins with a run-through, with props, in front of Lorne Michaels.
- After the run-through, the cast and crew find out which of the sketches are in the dress rehearsal, and which are cut. The writer/producer deals with any changes.
- This is followed by a dress rehearsal performed in front of the studio audience, which lasts from 8 p.m. - 10 p.m. (or sometimes later) and contains approximately twenty minutes of material which will be deleted from the final broadcast.
- Lorne Michaels uses firsthand observation of the audience reaction during the dress rehearsal and input from the host and head writer to determine the final round of changes, re-ordering sketches as necessary.
- The live show then begins at 11:30 p.m. Eastern Time, but some markets will delay airing.
The status of the show during the week is maintained on a bulletin board. Sketches and other segments are given labels which are put on index cards and put on the board in the order of their performance. The order is based on content as well as production limitations such as camera placement and performer availability. Segments which have been cut are kept to the side of the board. As the broadcast approaches, often the writer/producer discovers the fate of his or her segment only by consulting the bulletin board.
A 60 Minutes report taped in October 2004 depicted the intense writing frenzy that goes on during the week leading up to a show, with crowded meetings and long hours. The report particularly noted the involvement of the guest hosts in developing and selecting the sketches in which they will appear.
When it's not live
SNL reruns are aired out of its original broadcast sequence, usually determined by which episodes have not yet been repeated, but had high ratings or acclaim for its live broadcast. Shows usually air twice during a particular season, but often the highest rated shows of the season have a second encore show towards the end of the off-season, or episodes will be repeated a second or third time to coincide with a new event connected with the person who hosted. For example, the Natalie Portman episode aired in March 2006 to promote V for Vendetta was repeated August 5 2006, prior to the film's DVD release August 8. Similarly, Jeff Gordon's episode reran following NBC's coverage of the Pepsi 400.
Encore showings are not always identical to the original broadcast. Successful sketches aired later in the show during the original broadcast may be reedited to appear earlier, and segments that did not work well during the live broadcast may be replaced by the dress rehearsal version, or entirely new sketches. A Peter Sarsgaard sketch from his January 21 2006 episode, involving a TV meant to broadcast Rachel Dratch's fake newscast, met with technical difficulties during the live broadcast when the in-sketch TV stopped working and a stagehand was seen fixing it. It was replaced with a dress rehearsal version in rerun. A sketch involving "butt pregnancy" during the first broadcast of the November 12, 2005, Jason Lee episode was replaced with a musical sketch about cafeteria food during the repeat. In the earlier years of the show's history, reruns occasionally replaced weaker sketches with segments from other episodes, usually from episodes that did not have an encore showing at all.
Perhaps one of the most notable substitutions was the replacement of Sinéad O'Connor's October 3, 1992 live performance during which she destroyed a photograph of Pope John Paul II, with the dress rehearsal performance from earlier that evening.
The show is never live in the western half of the USA. NBC airs a recording of the live show for the Mountain and Pacific time zones rather than have the cast do a second performance.
From time-to-time, SNL airs compilation shows. Such shows will feature hand-selected best sketches from the previous season; of a particular cast member or multiple-time host; or centered on a particular theme (eg. Halloween, Christmas). Political sketches are typically culled for a special in presidential election years; the 2000 special was notable for having self-deprecating (though separate) appearances by candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore.
- The show was forced by the network to run on a seven-second delay when Andrew Dice Clay and Richard Pryor hosted.
- The episode scheduled for October 25, 1986, hosted by Rosanna Arquette, was not aired until November 8 due to NBC broadcasting Game 6 of the 1986 World Series; the game entered extra innings, causing that night's broadcast of SNL to be canceled. The show was recorded for the studio audience starting at 1:30 a.m. Eastern Time, and broadcast two weeks later with an "apology" by New York Mets pitcher Ron Darling.
- The episode scheduled for February 10, 2001, hosted by Jennifer Lopez, aired 45 minutes late due to an XFL game. Lopez and the cast were not told they were airing on a delay.<ref> It's Saturday Night Delayed!
. Studio Briefing (2001-02-13)
. Retrieved on September 21, 2006. </ref>
- During Eddie Murphy's last season, he was only available for part of the season, so they recorded a number of extra sketches in September 1983 that featured him and were broadcast in episodes for which he was not available.<ref>Saturday Night: A Backstage History of Saturday Night Live.</ref>
- When Sam Kinison delivered a comic monologue in 1986, NBC removed his plea for the legalization of marijuana from the West Coast broadcast and all subsequent airings.
- A portion of Martin Lawrence's 1994 monologue concerning feminine hygiene has been removed from all repeats, replaced with a voiceover and super stating that the excised portion "...was a frank and lively presentation, and nearly cost us all our jobs."<ref> Martin Lawrence's Monologue (Transcript)
. JTORG (2003-04-12)
. Retrieved on October 10, 2006. </ref>
- In a November 5, 1992 Wayne's World sketch, the characters Wayne and Garth (respectively portrayed by Mike Myers and Dana Carvey) made fun of Chelsea Clinton (the then 13-year old daughter of President-Elect Bill Clinton), implying that Chelsea was incapable of causing males to "Schwing!" (essentially lacking beauty and attractiveness). This joke was subsequently edited out of all repeats and syndication rebroadcasts of this sketch.<ref> Just ask Chelsea, Jenna and Barbara: Escaping the glare of the spotlight isn't easy for kids whose dads work in the Oval Office
. San Francisco Chronicle (2004-01-22)
. Retrieved on November 23, 2007. </ref>
Frequent musical guests
The following performers have been musical guests on SNL at least five times:
|Musical Guest||Number of Episodes||First Musical Appearance||Last Musical Appearance||Other Notes|
|Dave Grohl||9||January 11, 1992||October 13, 2007||He was the drummer for Nirvana in their two performances, was a drummer for Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers on one performance, was a drummer for Tenacious D on one performance, and performed with his most recent band, Foo Fighters, five times.|
|Paul Simon||7||October 18, 1975||May 13, 2006||Simon also hosted or co-hosted three shows. He co-hosted with Catherine Oxenberg on May 10, 1986, during the 11th season. He solely hosted the second show on October 18, 1975 where he performed with Art Garfunkel and Phoebe Snow and on November 20, 1976, where he was one of two musical guests. Is also best friend of show creator Lorne Michaels.|
|Tom Petty & The Heartbreakers||7||November 10, 1979||April 10, 1999|
|Randy Newman||6||October 18, 1975||October 22, 1988|
|James Taylor||6||September 18, 1976||November 13, 1993|
|Beck||6||January 11, 1997||October 28, 2006||He appeared as musical guest two times in 1999 (with hosts Bill Paxton and Christina Ricci).|
|Sting||5||October 17, 1987||November 20, 1999||Only non-American performer to appear as a musical guest at least five times; has also performed in at least one sketch during each of his appearances.|
|Foo Fighters||5||December 2, 1995||October 13, 2007|
Musical guests who simultaneously hosted
The following performers have pulled a double duty as both musical guests and host during the same SNL episode:
|Musical Guest||Date of Hosting/Musical Appearance||Other Notes|
|Lily Tomlin||November 22, 1975||She is actually the first to host and be in the musical act, but the show was listed without a musical act. So she is not given musical act credit|
|Desi Arnaz||February 21, 1976||He is the first performer to appear simultaneously as host and musical guest.|
|Paul Simon||November 20, 1976|
|Ray Charles||November 12, 1977|
|The Rolling Stones||October 7, 1978||Are the only band to host and be musical guests on SNL (even though Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Charlie Watts, and Ron Wood were the only band members to appear in sketches)|
|Frank Zappa||October 21, 1978|
|Olivia Newton-John||May 22, 1982|
|Lily Tomlin||January 22, 1983||Appearing in the musical act also technically makes her the first to host and appear in the musical act twice. Though again the show was listed without a musical guest so she was not given credit. Tomlin appeared as Pervis Hawkins|
|Stevie Wonder||May 7, 1983|
|Willie Nelson||February 21, 1987|
|Dolly Parton||April 15, 1989|
|Quincy Jones||February 10, 1990||Jones' hosting stint had ten musical guests on one night, an SNL record.|
|Sting||January 19, 1991||Sting also hosted in early 1997. He was not the credited musical guest but he did perform a few numbers.|
|MC Hammer||December 7, 1991|
|Garth Brooks||February 28, 1998 and November 13, 1999||He is one of only three performers to simultaneously act as host and musical guest more than once. Garth appeared in the second episode as himself as host, and his alter ego Chris Gaines as musical guest.|
|Deion Sanders||February 24, 1995||Bon Jovi was the credited musical guest, but Deion Sanders performed "It's On" and "Must be the Money".|
|Jennifer Lopez||February 10, 2001|
|Britney Spears||May 13, 2000 and February 2, 2002||At 18, she was the youngest person in SNL History to act as a host and musical guest the same time on May 13, 2000. She is also the only female in SNL History to host and perform in the same episode more than once.|
|Justin Timberlake||October 11, 2003 and December 16, 2006|
|Christina Aguilera||February 28, 2004||Christina hosted this episode and Maroon 5 was the official guest. She did perform "Beautiful" at the end of the monologue. She was the musical guest on Nov. 11th.|
|Janet Jackson||April 10, 2004|
|Queen Latifah||October 9, 2004|
|Will Ferrell||May 14, 2005||Will Ferrell performs with Queens of the Stone Age during "Little Sister" as his "More Cowbell" character, Gene Frenkle.|
|Ludacris||November 18, 2006|
|Jon Bon Jovi||October 13, 2007||Jon Bon Jovi hosted, with Bon Jovi performing twice, and Foo Fighters performing once.|
The SNL Band
The Saturday Night Live Band (most often referred to as The Live Band) is the house band of Saturday Night Live (SNL). It has consistently featured some of the finest studio musicians available in New York, including Paul Shaffer, G.E. Smith, Lou Marini (1975-1983), David Sanborn (1975), Michael Brecker, Ray Chew (1980-1983), Alan Rubin (1975-1983), Georg Wadenius (1979-1985), Steve Ferrone (1985), and Tom Malone, who served as leader of the band from 1981 to 1985. The band is currently under the leadership of Tower of Power alum Lenny Pickett and keyboardists Leon Pendarvis and Katreese Barnes.
Recurring characters and sketches
Films based on SNL sketches
The early days of SNL spawned several movies, including the successful The Blues Brothers. However, it was not until the success of Wayne's World that Broadway Video (Lorne Michaels' production company) became encouraged to feature more film spinoffs, with several popular 1990s sketch characters becoming adapted into movies. Producers tried their luck with a revival of 1970s characters The Coneheads, followed by movies based around Pat, Stuart Smalley, The Ladies Man, The Butabi Brothers and Mary Katherine Gallagher. Some did moderate business, though others did not — notably It's Pat! and Stuart Saves His Family, with the latter losing US$15 million despite good reviews.
DVD release and controversy
On October 13, 2006, it was announced that Saturday Night Live: The Complete First Season would be released by Universal Studios beginning December 5, 2006. It was to be released in its full, uncut format with all musical performances and sketches intact with included bonus material to accompany the set. 
After the set was released, it received criticism from some reviewers and fans, some of whom had recorded live copies to compare the "complete" episodes against. A criticism of the set was that Broadway Video removed most of the bumpers from the episodes. The only bumper included in each episode was the final one which transitioned to the credits. One reviewer explained Broadway Video's reasoning:
Broadway Video told me that they don't really consider [the bumpers] part of the show, and they were removed (except for the last bumper) to make the episode on DVD flow better.<ref></ref>
Both season sets have material besides bumpers missing, such as a Wrigley's gum commercial parody from two episodes in season 1 and the original closing credit performance by John Belushi on the Karen Black episode in season 2.
Modèle:Inappropriate tone Notably, the show's quality has been called into question during various points in its history and has been the source of criticism by fans and critics due to its changing of castmembers and writers, starting with Chevy Chase's departure in 1976 and Bill Murray being hired in his place, though this would be short-lived when Bill Murray finally found his niche on the show. This would later resurface when Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi left SNL in 1979, with Harry Shearer, Dan Aykroyd's brother Peter, and several SNL writers such as Alan Zweibel, Brian Doyle-Murray, Tom Davis, Don Novello, and Al Franken being hired as replacements.
However, the most well-known change occurred when Lorne Michaels and the remaining original cast members left SNL in May 1980. Though now a normal occurrence, the cast change that occurred in Fall 1980 is the most infamous because it followed the departure of the original cast and series creator/producer Lorne Michaels. The entire season was dogged with criticism for its poor casting, weak writing, and Jean Doumanian's position as producer. But the real shocker was in the infamous February 1981 episode where new cast member Charles Rocket uttered the word "fuck" on national television. After that, the entire cast, with the exception of Eddie Murphy and Joe Piscopo, and all of the writing staff, except Brian Doyle-Murray, were fired at the end of the season. Dick Ebersol was brought in after Doumanian was fired and remained until spring of 1985. When Lorne Michaels decided to come back for the show's 11th season, most were hoping for a return to the show's quality during his first period as producer (1975–80). Unfortunately, Michaels' first season back was dogged yet again with criticism, only the criticisms were directed at the fact that Lorne chose a cast of up-and-coming (or already somewhat known) celebrities who were not experienced in comedy as a cover-up for the show's waning popularity. Michaels subsequently fired the majority of the Season 11 cast (retaining cast members Jon Lovitz, Nora Dunn, and Dennis Miller, featured player A. Whitney Brown, and longtime writer/featured player Al Franken) and hired new castmembers (Dana Carvey, Jan Hooks, Phil Hartman, Victoria Jackson, and Kevin Nealon) to replace them.
Of course, criticisms over SNL's quality have not stopped. Lorne Michaels would hear them again later in the early and mid-1990s (when Chris Farley, Adam Sandler, David Spade, Rob Schneider, and Chris Rock--a.k.a "The Bad Boys of SNL" were hired and Phil Hartman left the show after the nineteenth season, leaving Season 20 to be yet another critical and ratings low point, much like seasons six and eleven), and once again in early and mid 2000s (after Will Ferrell and Ana Gasteyer left the show). Usually the season after a castmember or castmembers have left, the show is questioned as to whether the upcoming season will be better than the previous.<ref> 'Saturday Night Live' in the post-Tina Fey, YouTube unknown
Rights to SNL
Modèle:Original research NBC and Broadway Video share the copyright to every episode of the show made thus far.
Broadway Video has released a number of Best of Specials for Home Video release such as:
- Best of Mike Myers
- Best of Adam Sandler
- Best of Chris Farley
- Best of Chris Rock
- Best of Will Ferrell - Volume 1
- Best of Will Ferrell - Volume 2
- Best of Molly Shannon
- 25th Anniversary Special
- Best of Dana Carvey
- Best of Eddie Murphy
- Best of Phil Hartman
- Best of Chris Kattan
- Best of Tracy Morgan
- Best of Christopher Walken
- Best of Jimmy Fallon
- Best of John Belushi
- Best of Dan Aykroyd
- Best of Gilda Radner
- Best of Tom Hanks
- Best of Jon Lovitz
- SNL The First 5 Years, and the Emmy nominated documentary detailing SNL’s beginnings
- Best of Alec Baldwin
- Best of David Spade
- Best of Cheri Oteri
- Best of Steve Martin
- Best of Commercial Parodies wrapped by Will Ferrell
- Best of Saturday TV Funhouse (featuring Steve Carell and Stephen Colbert as the Ambiguously Gay Duo)
Broadway Video has also released the following sets of complete seasons, or have announces scheduled release dates for them:
- Saturday Night Live: The Best of '06/'07 (released exclusively to Starbucks Coffee Company locations in August 2007/Nationwide release announced for Spring '0Image:Cool.gif
- Saturday Night Live: The Complete First Season (1975-1976)
- Saturday Night Live: The Complete Second Season (1976-1977)
The syndication rights to the original incarnation, syndication of shows made from 1975 forward have been held by Broadway Video, Lorne Michaels' production company. The home video rights are also held by Broadway Video.
|Trivia sections are discouraged under Wikipedia guidelines.
The article could be improved by integrating relevant items and removing inappropriate ones.
- In his 1980 interview in Playboy Magazine, John Lennon said that he and Paul McCartney had been watching the show together at his apartment in the Dakota, when producer Lorne Michaels made his famous offer of $3000 for a Beatles' reunion ("...if you want to pay Ringo less, that's your business.")<ref> SNL Transcripts: Beatles Offer, April 24, 1976
.</ref> He said the pair considered heading to the studio to "accept" the offer, but had decided they were too tired to do so. This event was fictionalized in the 2000 television film, Two of Us (2000 television).
- Eight former SNL cast members have been nominated for Academy Awards: George Coe (co-producer of the short subject The Dove, 1969), Dan Aykroyd (Best Supporting Actor, Driving Miss Daisy, 1989), Bill Murray (Best Actor, Lost in Translation, 2003), Joan Cusack (Best Supporting Actress, Working Girl, 1988, and In & Out, 1997), Robert Downey, Jr. (Best Actor, Chaplin, 1992), Randy Quaid (Best Supporting Actor, The Last Detail, 1973), Michael McKean (co-writer of Best Original Song, A Mighty Wind, 2003) and Eddie Murphy (Best Supporting Actor, Dreamgirls, 2006). Despite these nine nominations, no cast member has received the award to date.
- Nominated for 87 Emmy Awards
- Named #7 on Entertainment Weekly’s list of the Top 100 Entertainers of the past fifty years
- Official NBC website
- Saturday Night Live at the Internet Movie Database
- Saturday-Night-Live.com - Live from the 'Net Since 1997
- Broadway Video Official Page
- SNL: The Complete First Season DVD Press Release
- Saturday Night Live Transcripts
- Saturday Night Live Cast and Musical guest database
- Cader, Michael. (1994). Saturday Night Live: The First Twenty Years. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-70895-8.
- Hill, Doug, and Jeff Weingrad. (1986). Saturday Night: A Backstage History of Saturday Night Live. New York, NY: Beech Tree Books. ISBN 0-688-05099-9.
- Mohr, Jay. (2004). Gasping for Airtime: Two Years in the Trenches of Saturday Night Live. New York, NY: Hyperion. ISBN 1-4013-0006-5.
- Shales, Tom, and James Andrew Miller. (2002). Live from New York: An Uncensored History of Saturday Night Live. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-78146-0.de:Saturday Night Live
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